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Economics 101 Summer 2009 Homework #2 Due June 2, 2009 1. The market for bicycles in Eastland, a small closed economy, can currently be described by the following domestic demand and domestic supply curves: Domestic Demand: P = 1000 - Q Domestic Supply: P = 4Q a. What are the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity in this market? b. What is the value of consumer surplus in this market? c. What is the value of producer surplus in this market? Suppose the world price of bicycles is $500. d. If Eastland opens to trade, will it import or export bicycles? Explain your answer. e. Provide a numerical measure for your answer in part (d). f. When Eastland opens to trade, what is the value of consumer surplus? g. When Eastland opens to trade, what is the value of producer surplus? h. Compare Eastland's total surplus as a closed economy with its total surplus as an open economy. What is the change in total surplus it receives when it opens its economy? i. Given that trade increases total surplus why might Eastland adhere to a closed economy policy? 2. Eastland's domestic demand and domestic supply curves for bicycles are the equations given in problem (1). In addition, the world price of bicycles is $500. Suppose Eastland has decided to open the bicycle market up to trade, but the government has approved a quota limit of 200 imported bicycles. a. Given this quota, what will the price of bicycles be in Eastland? b. Calculate the value of consumer surplus with the quota, producer surplus with the quota, license holder revenue, and the deadweight loss due to the quota. c. Suppose that instead of a quota the government decides to implement a tariff on bicycles. If Eastland wishes to limit the number of imported bicycles to 300, what will be the price of bicycles with the tariff? 3. The market for organic vegetables can be described by the following two equations: Demand: Q = 500 - 2P Supply: Q = P - 100 a. What is the equilibrium price and quantity in this market? b. What is the value of consumer surplus in this market? c. What is the value of producer surplus in this market? Suppose there is an increase in population in this economy and this results in the quantity demanded of organic vegetables increasing by 150 units at every price. d. What is the new demand equation in this market? e. What is the new equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity in this market? 1 f. What happens to total surplus due to this shift in demand? Give a verbal explanation: no calculation required. 4. Suppose the demand for bicycles is given by the equation P = 2000 - 2Q while the supply of bicycles is given by the equation P = 6Q. a. What is the equilibrium price and quantity of bicycles? b. What is the value of consumer surplus in this market? c. What is the value of producer surplus in this market? d. Suppose the government decides to implement a subsidy into this market and the subsidy is equal to $500 per bicycle produced. Write the equation for the new supply curve given this subsidy and then draw a graph illustrating the original demand and supply curves, as well as the new supply curve. e. Given the subsidy described in part (d), find the new equilibrium price and quantity in this market. Does the price of bicycles fall by $500 given this subsidy? Explain your answer. f. Suppose that instead of the subsidy described in part (d), the government decides to implement a price ceiling of $1600 in this market. What will be the effect of this price ceiling? g. Suppose that instead of the subsidy described in part (d), the government decides to implement a price ceiling of $1200 in this market. What will be the effect of this price ceiling? 5. Joe is trying to figure out the implications of his product pricing on the revenue his firm will earn. He knows that the demand for his product is linear and that when the price of the product is $10 he can sell 300 units and when the price of his product is $20 he can sell 100 units. a. Write an equation for the demand for Joe's product. b. Fill in the following table based on the demand curve for this product. Price Quantity Demanded Total Revenue $0 $5 300 $15 100 $35 $40 c. At what price and quantity will total revenue be maximized? 6. In the market for bananas the quantity demanded at a price of $6.00 is 10 pounds of bananas and the quantity demanded at a price of $8.00 is 5 pounds of bananas. At a price of $2.00 producers supply two pounds of bananas and at a price of $4.00 producers supply six pounds of bananas. Assume that both the demand curve and the supply curve for bananas are linear. Also, assume that the price is price per pound of bananas. a. What are the equations for the demand curve and supply curve for bananas? 2 b. Given the demand and supply equations based upon the information given, what is the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantity in the market for bananas? c. Suppose the government decides to implement an excise tax of $1.80 per unit on banana producers. Given this tax calculate the i)new equilibrium price with the tax; ii) new equilibrium quantity with the tax; iii) net price received by firms; iv) value of consumer surplus with the tax; v) value of producer surplus with the tax; vi) value of tax revenue; and vii) deadweight loss due to the tax. 7. Consider a market where demand for the good is given by P = 100 - Q and supply is given by P = (1/4)Q. Suppose the government decides to implement a price support program where the government sets an effective price floor at $24. a. Given this price support program how many units of the good will consumers purchase? b. What is the value of direct consumer expenditure on this good? c. How many units of the good will the government purchase? d. Assuming storage costs are equal to $0, what is the cost of this program to the government? e. Consider the last unit of the good produced with this program. Is the value consumers are willing to pay for this last unit equal to the cost to producers of producing this last unit? Explain your answer. Suppose the government decides to implement a price subsidy program instead of a price support program. f. Suppose total production is the same under each program. What must the subsidy per unit equal for this to be true? 3